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Wednesday, July 12, 2017

Information On Tropical Disease: Prevention Common Tropical Diseases

The World Health Organization (WHO) has made significant progress in reducing tropical diseases. This was evidenced by the recently published report Integrating neglected tropical diseases in global health and development.

But the same report shows that the work is not finished yet. It concludes with the message: "No one must be left behind." What should happen to further reduce tropical diseases?


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Tropical diseases

Tropical diseases such as sleep sickness and elephantiasis have been greatly reduced in recent years. This is among others through political support from the affected countries, drug donations and improvement of the living environment.

In addition, the financial support for the treatment of these diseases appears to be contradictory. Hence, these diseases are often referred to as neglected tropical diseases. The report shows that NTD programs with limited financial resources continue to struggle.

Other challenges are organizational in nature, but also the overcoming of important barriers as poverty and stigmatization are mentioned. In the affected countries, many patients have no money for drugs, or are they afraid of stubborn prejudices. In some countries, there is still much ignorance and superstition about certain diseases.

WHO strategies

The report describes 5 strategies that are very successful in reducing tropical diseases. These will also be further used to achieve the 2020 targets.
  1. Veterinary Public Health (VPH)
  2. Innovative and Intensified Disease Management (IDM)
  3. Provision of Safe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)
  4. Preventive Chemotherapy and Transmission Control (PCT)
  5. Vector Ecology and Management (VEM)

Veterinary Public Health (VPH)


Veterinary public health is defined by the WHO as "the sum of all contributions to the physical, mental and social well-being of humans through applicable veterinary medicine." Human health is inherently linked to animal health and productivity. This band is particularly strong in development areas where animals and their products are used for transportation, traction, fuel, clothing and food. But in both developing and industrialized countries, poor animal welfare can pose a risk to public health.

Some communicable diseases are transmitted from animal to person. These are known as zoonoses, and examples of these are rabies, ebola, Q fever and salmonella.

Innovative and Intensified Disease Management (IDM)


IDM focuses on tropical diseases for which no or few cost effective treatment equipment exists, and limited medication is available. These diseases are often difficult to diagnose and poorly treatable. In addition, little research and development is invested. IDM also means that pressure is being put on countries and organizations to conduct more research and invest money for the "neglected" diseases.
These include skin infections, Chagas disease, African sleeping sickness, Sand dermatitis and Raspberry.

Provision of Safe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)


Providing clean drinking and washing water, sanitation and improving overall hygiene is the fifth major strategy of the WHO. This reduces the transmission of vectors and infections with zoonoses. This strategy has a key position in reducing tropical diseases. Because what distinguishes many tropical diseases from normal diseases, they are created in areas where hygiene is underestimated.

An important example of any of these diseases is diarrhea, which is caused by poor hygiene, a virus or bacterial infection or eating spoiled food.

Preventive Chemotherapy and Transmission Control (PCT)


PCT focuses on tropical diseases for which there is both a treatment strategy and treatment equipment and safe, effective medication. This makes it possible to carry out large-scale preventive vaccinations in risk areas. This reduces the spread of infectious diseases as much as possible and decreases death rates. Of course, it is better to prevent diseases than to cure.

PCT is used, among other things, in Guinea's worm disease and parasitic worm infections by contaminated water or food, mosquito bites and soil contamination.

Vector Ecology and Management (VEM)


VEM develops strategies and guidelines based on environment and vector management. A vector is an organism that transmits diseases from one organism to another without always experiencing it. A well-known example of this is the rotting fluid during the 14th century pest epidemic. This approach therefore includes the use of pesticides and other pest control methods. This strategy has many interfaces with Veterinary Public Health and Provision of Safe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene.
Known tropical diseases transmitted by vectors are malaria, dengue and denika.

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