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Saturday, February 28, 2015

Gluten Free Foods

What is gluten?

Gluten (from the Latin gluten, glue) is the name of a group of proteins, as well as starch, are found in the endosperm of cereals (wheat, rye, barley, spelled, teff, rice and corn), and the products thereof created. The protein of wheat is about 80% of gluten. Durum (Triticum durum - a cereal) is called hard wheat and has a particularly high gluten content. Gluten is not water soluble and is stored by the plant in the grain in order to serve as a reserve food.

Non-grains like wild rice, buckwheat, quinoa, amaranth, soybeans and sunflower seeds contain no gluten. Animal products never contain gluten.

Gluten is divided into two groups of proteins, the glutenin and gliadins. Only the gliadin fraction from the gluten can give rise to celiac disease (gluten intolerance). Cereals with little to none of these gliadins (rice, maize, teff) can be eaten by people with celiac disease and are therefore (incorrectly) known as gluten.

Gluten foods

Role in bread baking
Gluten is composed of the gliadin and glutenin proteins. These give elasticity to the products to be made from the flour. The more gluten contents of the flour, the firmer the product.

When the bread baking the gluten is responsible for holding the released carbon dioxide in the dough, causing the bread to rise. This is especially important when heavier breads, such as whole wheat bread, raisin bread or bread with lots of seeds and kernels. Gluten namely forms the skeleton of the bread, so it should be able to wear the stuff well. After baking the coagulated gluten ensures that the final product retains its shape.

Meat substitute
Cooked gluten is firmly and sucks an amount of the surrounding fluid (and the taste of it). It is therefore often used in vegetarian cuisine. One variety is called seitan. Some people consider it a convincing imitation meat, when good taste was created.

gluten free diet

Production of gluten

Because gluten is not easy from the flour of wheat and other grains can be isolated dissolves in water. From a simple dough made from flour and water is flushed out, the starch and the gluten is dried. For non-food applications gives a salty solution better results. The remaining gluten than getting a firm, gum-like structure. The wheat starch is mainly further processed into glucose syrups.

Diseases associated with gluten

Celiac Disease
People with celiac disease (spoken language: gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity) suffer an intolerance to a certain group of gluten (the gliadines) and must follow a gluten free diet. It should be a distinction made between gluten that celiac disease can cause (as in wheat, rye, barley and, to a lesser extent, oats) and the proteins that also sometimes be called gluten but do not cause coeliac disease (as in rice, corn and teff). Intake of gliadines caused damage to them via an auto-immune reaction in the intestinal villi of the small intestine, with the result that the absorption of the nutrients from the food deteriorates. When all products with gliadins be avoided restore the villi themselves and nutrients can again be recorded normally. The villi recover, however, not permanent; one can not completely healed. Re eating gluten-containing products will also mean a further deterioration on the already existing damage.

Gluten free diet
People with celiac disease need lifelong strict free gliadin (gluten in spoken language, but several gluten-containing grains are considered gluten-free) diet to follow. Trade in gluten-free products is emerging. Some grains such as teff, millet, maize and rice, and non-cereals such as quinoa and buckwheat are used as a substitute for gladinerijke cereals like wheat. Oats may contain gluten as those processed by a machine that also processes gluten products. Since gluten present in so many foods, it is difficult to follow a gluten-free diet. To see to it that the parties nevertheless recommended all important nutrients in sufficient quantity ingested is accompanied by a dietician.

Gluten Allergy
An allergy against various proteins in the complex of gluten is known under the collective name gluten allergy, because often it is not known against which the allergy-specific protein is targeted. It is a "normal" allergic reaction which is not related to celiac disease, although spoken in the vernacular often gluten allergy, celiac disease when they mean.

People with gluten intolerance should also avoid the so-called "gluten-free cereals (teff, rice, corn, oats), as they do contain gluten and thus can cause an allergic reaction.

In 2008, in an authoritative scientific article (Cochrane meta-analysis) reports that research had shown that there was no significant effect of a gluten and / or casein-free diet on people with autism, but that further research is necessary.

Duhring Disease
There is much evidence for the proposition that Duhring's disease, a rare inflammatory disease of the skin with a herpes-like character (hence the scientific name dermatitis herpetiformis), a symptom of celiac disease. Investigated whether other skin conditions such as psoriasis have a relationship with gluten intolerance.

Gluten free produce
On some products is a gluten free symbol made. The most famous symbol is developed by the English celiac disease-Association. This is a registered symbol and can only be used with the permission of the national celiac Association. The basis for use of this logo is a certified quality system (for example, BRC Food, IFS or HACCP) where additional tested on the requirements of the Gluten free-fit as well.

Until recently, if a product contains up to 200 ppm (200 mg per pound) of gluten. This lower limit in 2008 by the Codex Alimentarius Standard for gluten-free products reduced to 20 ppm. The European Regulation (EC) 41/2009, the claim "gluten free" which also controlled 20 ppm as the maximum standard is used. Products with the claim 'gluten-free' must from January 1, 2012 to comply with this legal requirement. Products made with gluten-containing grains, especially for people with celiac disease, also may the term 'very low gluten' may be used. Then, the content of gluten up to 100 mg / kg.

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