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Wednesday, December 17, 2014

Systolic Blood Pressure - High And Low Blood Pressure

What Is Blood Pressure ?


The blood pressure or tension is the fluid pressure in the arterial system. Blood pressure is represented by two values, the systolic pressure or systolic pressure and diastolic pressure or under pressure, separated by a slash, for example, RR (Riva-Rocci) 120/80 mmHg. The numbers indicate the pressure in millimeters of mercury pressure (symbol: mmHg, 760 mmHg = 1 bar), i.e., the pressure exerted by a column of mercury 120 mm high in the previous example. A more scientific unit in order to press in blood pressure would be the kilopascal, but which is hardly used for historical reasons, up to now. In some countries it is common practice to indicate the blood pressure in cm Hg, so with a less zero.

High blood pressure or hypertension is a particularly in western countries commonly occurring disorder. On April 7, 2013 was hypertension theme organized by the WHO World Health Day.

Blood Pressure Definition


-The systolic pressure or systolic blood pressure is the maximum pressure that builds up in the aorta or main lichaamsslagader at the contraction of the left ventricle.
-The diastolic pressure or negative pressure is the minimum of the pressure that occurs between two contractions of the heart in, as the left ventricle fills with blood again.

The two values together will give a picture of the mean arterial pressure, which can be estimated by the formula:

Pgemiddeld = Pdiastolisch + ((Psystolisch-Pdiastolisch)/3)

The arrangement of the blood pressure in the body is a complicated process with a number of feedback systems such as the RAAS and with different time scales, of the battle-to-battle regulation in the heart to the tension in the arterial vessel wall to the regulation of the amount of water and salt in the vascular system by hormones including via the kidneys.

To both a high and low blood pressure can lead to health problems. The first case is rare, the second is common. It is a strong culturally determined given: in Germany are very many medicines prescribed at low blood pressure, while this problem only seems to occur in English-speaking countries.

Blood Pressure Values


For adults:

-Less than RR 90/60 mm Hg: low blood pressure / hypotension
-Around the RR 120/80 mm Hg: optimal blood pressure
-Less than RR 140/90 mm Hg: normal blood pressure
-More than RR 160/90 mm Hg: hypertension / high blood pressure

For children:

-Around the RR 80/45 mm Hg: normal blood pressure

The limit values rise with increase in age, mainly the systolic blood pressure.

In people with ailments that may have an adverse effect on the blood vessels, such as diabetes mellitus, is usually a lower systolic blood pressure (RR 135 mmHg) as maximum for normal blood pressure maintained.

Systolic Blood Pressure - High And Low Blood Pressure


Blood Pressure Measurement


This is done using a measuring device, which consists of a band (cuff) from the inside with an inflatable balloon which is connected to a pressure gauge (formerly one that made use of a column of mercury, this should not be more out of environmental considerations). The balloon is folded around the upper arm and inflated with a pump or squeeze balloon with valve until the pressure is so high that there is no more blood flows through the upper arm artery (pulse no longer felt). Now allowed to slowly through a valve open slightly the pressure in the balloon. At some point, the systolic blood pressure is higher than the pressure in the balloon, so that the artery in the arm with each heartbeat moment something blood to pass through. This can be checked by using a stethoscope placed over the artery sounds are heard every time the artery again closes, the K-sound, named after its discoverer. At this point the reading of the manometer is noted and is the systolic pressure. Let it further lower the pressure, then disappear the show at the time that the artery remains open throughout the entire cycle. Now one reads off the pressure. This method was discovered by the Italian researcher Scipione Riva-Rocci and blood pressure therefore still is abbreviated with the letters "RR".

Blood Pressure Variations


The blood pressure is a highly variable and dynamic changes in the course of a few minutes or even seconds. Stress can raise blood pressure by releasing the hormone adrenaline within half a minute with dozens mmHg, as well as effort. With heavy exertion, higher blood pressures normal in healthy people at rest would be considered greatly increased. Sometimes it is the measurement for the patient - usually unconscious! - All so stressful that is found a pressure at each measurement that is 20 or 30 mm above the actual value of peace that patient (white coat effect). The only solution for this is the ambulatory 24-hour measurement, in which the patient wears during a day an automatic sphygmomanometer which is, for example, every fifteen minutes, without the intervention of an observer measurement inflate automatically, and the blood pressure, which is then stored in a computer memory, and the next day is read . There can therefore be given to the nocturnal blood pressure reduction. In a healthy blood pressure control, blood pressure decreases at night with 10 to 20% of the average daily value. If the average value night but is 0 to 10% lower, one speaks of a "non-dipping '(ie' not decreasing) blood pressure profile. People with non-dipping profile have a significantly greater risk of cardiovascular disease.

For this reason, one will generally not want to start on the basis of a single high value to include the treatment of high blood pressure but only if that value for example. 3 times was measured with an interval of several days or weeks.

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