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Thursday, December 25, 2014

Magnesium Definition - Symptoms Of Excess And Deficiency Of Magnesium

What is magnesium ?

Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a silvery white alkaline earth metal.

Production and recycling

Magnesium can be produced by electrolysis of MgCl2 or metallo by thermal reduction of MgO. Anno 1988, the total production of magnesium originated from the conversion of dolomite (42%), metal salts (36%), seawater (18%) and magnesite (4%). The manufacturing process for the formation of one kilogram of magnesium takes relatively much energy, as compared to the conventional materials in the lightweight-material industry. Look at the volume just is it energy efficient than aluminum or zinc, and can even compete with polymers.

When recycling magnesium, there are several issues that need to be bypassed:

-Undesirable inclusions in the material: non-metallic particles, intermetallic compounds and parts of oxide skin.
-Reactivity of magnesium: the melt must be well shielded to prevent the formation of an oxide skin. For this, melting salts may be used.

Alloy / naming
The name of a magnesium alloy consists of four parts.

-First part: two letters, which store the two alloy elements which are present the most in the material.
-Second part: a (rounded) number indicating how many percent of the alloy from the two main alloying elements exist
-Part Three: a letter of the alphabet, which is awarded to the alloy as soon as he is now regarded as a standard alloy. The letters are presented in ascending order, except the letter I and O.
-Part Four: Consists of a letter followed by a number, which says something about the heat treatment or reinforcement which has undergone material.

A typical magnesium alloy is, for example, the casting alloy AZ91A, which is used among other things in the car industry. It contains 90 (86-94)% (m / m) A (luminium), 7 (3.5-10)% Z (ink), and at least 1.3% M (angaan). Furthermore, up to 5% Si (licium), up to 1% Cu (copper), up to 0.3% Ni (nickel-) and 3% other substances.

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Being with a bright white light illuminates magnesium often used in fireworks as gear and in the past was often used in flashlights for photography.

The metal plays an important role in the organic synthesis. It reacts with a organohalides to a organomagnesiumhalogenide: a class of compounds which are known as the Grignard reagents.

In terms of weight, strength, and processing properties of magnesium complies with the requirements in order to be applied in (lightweight) construction. An example of a constructive use of magnesium is the city bike by the British designer Richard Thorpe. A ceramic coating to protect against corrosion since the magnesium. Another field where magnesium as relevant is seen is the car industry. Lightweight magnesium vehicles would be able to reduce fuel consumption significantly. Experiments with magnesium in the automotive industry are already done since the development of the "Car of the Future" from 1952, the Buick LeSabre, but as yet it remains largely restricted to use of magnesium components in vehicles produced on a small scale. The techniques for the deformation of magnesium, and the protection of the material that is required against corrosion, render the metal namely for the time being very costly. Furthermore, the number of existing alloys are not comprehensive, and is still active research into the various training techniques of magnesium. Because the knowledge of magnesium still is not so great, it is still prone to in the industry, a shift to the conventional materials such as plastic and aluminum. Research is being done to include the extrusion of magnesium to profiles in structures, and to magnesium die-casting in thixotropic state (thixomoldingproces). Magnesium is thixotropic (viscous) at 100 degrees below the melting point.

Notable features

The metal is a third lighter than aluminum and it is essential for lightweight alloys with this metal. These alloys are widely used in the aerospace industry.

Magnesium Chemie is characterized by the electron configuration 3S2: It is an alkaline earth metal. The atom preferably has lost the two outer electrons to form the divalent ion Mg2 +. The metal is a strong reducing agent, although less strongly than the alkali metals. In contrast to the beryllium ion Be2 + Mg2 + is not especially small and it has not, in particular, the toxic properties of its neighboring element.

Magnesium compounds play a significant biological role. Thus contains chlorophyll, the pigment which takes care in plants for photosynthesis, a magnesium atom. The hydroxide Mg (OH) 2 is a moderate base, and is sometimes used as a remedy for gastric acid. The magnesium sulphate MgSO4.10H2O (Epsom salts) as a laxative and is used in toxemia (eclampsia). Epsom Salt is also used to prevent the needle get washed brown needles. Kieserite is a magnesium-containing fertilizer and is used in horticulture.

Usually contains one mole of magnesium sulfate, 10 moles of water of crystallization. Anhydrous magnesium sulphate (without crystal water) is strongly hygroscopic, and is used in the organic chemistry as a drying agent.

Toxicology and safety

Magnesium and its alloys oxidise easily. Both finely divided and in molten state it can react very violently with water, the material is highly flammable. In combustion creates a remarkably bright white light that can cause damage to the eyes. In order to avoid during the processing of liquid magnesium that there is a reaction with oxygen, a protective gas is used to cover along the material. Finely divided magnesium is dried and compressed stored to prevent spontaneous combustion or explosion. These properties of magnesium, moreover, there is so much for ensuring that it is suitable for use in pyrotechnics.

Clinical Significance

Magnesium is a mineral that is present in every cell of the body. It is essential for energy production, operation of muscles and nerves and for maintaining the firmness of bones. Magnesium plays a key role in the action of enzymes in the body, and is involved in the production of hormones. Approximately half of the magnesium in the body stock is located (in combination with calcium and phosphate) in the bone.

Diet is the source of magnesium. It is present in many foods, especially nuts, grains, chia seeds, green vegetables such as purslane, spinach and peas. The amount of magnesium in blood, bone cells, and is kept constant by the body. The regulation is carried out by adjustment of recording (via the intestines) and elimination (of the urine via the kidneys).

The doctor may request a determination of magnesium as the patient sustained a low calcium or potassium, for patients with symptoms consistent with a reduced magnesium investigation malabsorption, malnutrition, diarrhea or alcohol abuse, use of some drugs that the excretion of magnesium by encouraging the kidneys or to monitor the kidney function.

Depending on the power supply can cause a magnesium deficiency. This is the case in many food products in Western society. By the continued use of unilateral fertilizer the soil can be so poor in magnesium, which can lead to a deficiency in our diet. Symptoms of deficiency include general lethargy or fatigue. In a prolonged magnesium deficiency symptoms occur as irritation of the nerves in the muscles, heart arrhythmias and stomach cramps. A low concentration of magnesium (hypomagnesaemia) can be the result of:

-Inadequate intake of magnesium through diet, especially in the elderly, people with malnutrition and alcohol abuse
-Insufficient absorption of magnesium through the intestines, for example, as a result of the Crohn's disease (inflammation in the lining of the gut)
-Too high excretion of magnesium through the kidneys
-High or low amounts of glucose (sugar) in the blood (uncontrolled diabetes)
-Decreased activity of the parathyroid gland (hypoparathyroidism)
-Prolonged use of water pills (diuretics)
-Prolonged diarrhea
-After a surgical procedure
-With severe burns
-With preeclampsia

When an excess of magnesium is created mild diarrhea. An increased concentration of magnesium is rarely the diet due. Usually it is the result of an increased magnesium problems in secretion or artificial administration. A raised magnesium can be found at:

-Kidney failure
-Overactive parathyroid gland (hyperparathyroidism)
-Underactive thyroid
-Acidification (to low pH) of the blood in diabetes (diabetic acidosis)
-Addison's disease
-Use of magnesium-containing laxatives

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