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Thursday, December 11, 2014

Hydrochlorothiazide Dosage And Side Effects

What is hydrochlorothiazide ?


Hydrochlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic. Based on efficacy and price is in the treatment of hypertension in the elderly (over 55 years) to a thiazide diuretic drug of first choice. Depending on age, plasma renin activity, ethnicity and any other conditions that the patient also other antihypertensive drugs as first choice agent eligible. Hydrochlorothiazide is also suitable for the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension, as well as long-acting dihydropyridine calcium antagonists. This is a form of hypertension, in which only the systolic pressure is elevated. This is particularly in the elderly, by an increased diameter and stiffness of the aorta, and the reflection of pressure waves from the periphery back to the heart. In the treatment of peripheral edema is generally used a more potent loop diuretic.

Properties


Thiazide diuretic. Force after 1 to 2 hours, maximum effect after 4 hours. Operating time about 12 hours.

Hydrochlorothiazide dosage


Hypertension: 12.5-25 mg maintenance dose; a maximum of 50 mg per day. If edema or heart failure: 25-75 mg per day. (see leaflet)

Indications

-Hypertension.
-Heart failure.
-Edema in cirrhosis and nephrotic syndrome.
-Renal diabetes insipidus.

Contraindications

-Severe renal impairment
-Liver cirrhosis with ascites and electrolyte shifts.
-Hypersensitivity to sulfonamide.

Pregnancy

Especially during the second and third trimester of pregnancy, the substance is harmful.

Lactation

Hydrochlorothiazide passes into breast milk. During use not breastfeed.

Hydrochlorothiazide side effects


-Disruption of water and electrolyte balance, particularly hypokalemia, sometimes hyponatremia, hypercalcemia, hypochloremic alkalosis and dehydration. This can lead to a dry mouth and xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome or hyposalivation), fatigue, muscle cramps and dizziness.
-Increase in serum lipids
-Gout
-Impaired glucose tolerance.
-Rare: hypersensitivity reactions

Interactions


-Increase of the lithium level.
-Inhibition of the action of insulin and oral antidiabetic agents.
-Cardiac glycosides as the diuretic resulted in hypokalemia.
-Concomitant use of corticosteroids can lead to increased potassium loss.
-In particular inhibitors can reduce.

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