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Friday, December 5, 2014

Foods With Trans Fat

What is trans fat?


Trans fats are fats which at least one of the fatty acids with the glycerol are esterified one or more double bonds are in the trans configuration. In their natural form are compounds in which mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acids always located in the cis-configuration. When a cis-compound are hydrogen atoms, the spatial point of view the same side of the double bond. In the trans-compound in trans-fatty acids are the hydrogen atoms on either side of the double bond. In a fatty acid chain has a cis-compound of the effect of the fatty acid chain is naturally curved: the cis-configuration, namely, leads to the formation of a kink in the linear chain. When the cis-compound is converted into a trans-compound disappears the kink and the fatty acid chain is straight.

In case of several cis-compounds in a single chain (such as in polyunsaturated fatty acids is the case) that the molecular can mean the difference between a strongly curved fatty acid and a straight chain. Although trans fatty acids and cis-fatty acids can have the same gross chemical formula, the properties are quite different. For example, differences in the melting and boiling points of the cis and the trans form substantially.

Noxiousness


After water the lipids form the major component of the human body. Lipids are substances that do not mix with water in all proportions. Lipids have been well soluble in acetone or alcohol, among others. The inclusion of trans fat from our food results in a non-natural change in the composition of the lipids.

In their natural curved shape of the cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids from vegetable oils are the precursors of prostaglandins, locally acting signaling molecules, which play an important role in inflammatory processes and in the immune system.

In the straight trans-form the fatty acids arachidonic acid and prostaglandins may be impossible in converted. The delta-6 desaturase enzymes and delta-5 desaturase, which should convert the fatty acids, trans-fatty acids cannot with the straight handle. This is something where the research group of the scientist Mahfouz m. et.al. already in 1981 for the first time on be. The straight chain of a trans-fatty acid is related to the straight chain of saturated fat, and trans-fat behaves in the body, therefore, in the same way as saturated fat. If it is built into the cell membrane is the cell membrane by less liquid. Fluidity of the cell membrane is an important feature for the functioning of cells. Rigidity of the cell membrane is worsening among other things the functioning of receptors and other boodschappersystemen of the cell.

In 1990, found strong evidence that trans fatty acids increase blood cholesterol levels and was also clear that they increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Since then the Government and industry have taken steps to limit exposure to trans-fatty acids. Trans-fatty acids give a further deterioration of the LDL/HDL ratio and of the cholesterol-HDL-cholesterol ratio. They increase the lipoprotein-a chronically elevated insulin levels and give what entails an increased risk of diabetes. They also provide for a decrease in Visual acuity in infants of mothers with relatively high concentrations of trans-fatty acids in breast milk and is low birth weight at these babies. Trans-fatty acids cause inferior sperm and reduced testosterone values in men. They also affect the conversion of plant-based omega-3 fatty acids omega 3-fatty acids very detrimental to prolonged tissue.

Reach is a EU directive intended for managing risks of substances. The food industry has been given an exemption from the EU for the registration of risks of trans fat. The knowledge about the risks is present but is not yet accessible to the consumer.

Genesis


Trans fatty acids occur among other things at the hardening of vegetable oils. Among other things, in the manufacture of margarines or in the preparation of fat for the pastry industry created trans fatty acids because they can energetically what are more favourable (i.e. easier are formed because the chemical bonds which contain less energy) than the cis fatty acids. The problem occurs with a partial hydrogenation over a nickel catalyst because the first part reaction is reversible; at reversal may be a trans-or a cis fatty acid with a thermodynamic preference for the trans-configuration. In the seventies of the 20th century were hardened oils to be used widely as margarine. (Partially) Hydrogenated fat had good functional properties and could be used for various applications. By the partial harding share can trans fat be very high. Later was only the harmfulness of this known.

Trans fat is also found in fats of animal origin. The fate of these substances is investigated. Moreover, trans-fatty acids of animal origin may not be as unhealthy as those from industrial processing. [Source?] However, this is difficult to investigate because of their relevance in the diet is small compared to the result of human activity resulting trans-fatty acids. The animal, for example, trans-vaccenic acid can be converted to rumenic acid by the enzyme delta-9-desaturase. Rumenic acid is associated with anti-carcinogenic and antiatherogenic properties.

Preventing


In 2003, Denmark has taken legal measures against harmful trans fat in the diet.

The figures of the Dutch food consumption survey 2003 show that when an average of 1.9 grams of trans fatty acids per day ate.

Harmful trans-fatty acids in partially hydrogenated soybean oil, in particular, for, because crude soybean oil for ca 80% unsaturated cis fat exists, many trans fat arises for hydrogenation. Trans-fatty acids are also found in other grades of oil that have been hydrogenated, the trans-fatty acid percentage is closely linked to the percentage of polyunsaturated fats in oil. The are multiple unsaturated compounds that are hydrogenated, to ensure the shelf life. Soybean oil/fat is mainly used for sauces, dressings, products of confectioneries, snack, margarines, crispy side or for fried (cereal) products, pretzels, cakes, candy, soups, some desserts, etc. The vegetable fat entry without further indication should be seen as: contains soybean oil/fat. There may be significant amounts of trans-fatty acids are in snack bar products, horeca food, fried fish to the stall, and suchlike, although this depends on the type of oil or fat used.

The natural trans-fatty acids from animal sources are associated with beneficial properties, unlike the trans-fatty acids that have arisen by means of hydrogenation.

In the us, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on 1 January 2006 the mandatory mention of trans fats.

New York and other American cities carry active campaigns to the trans-fatty acid percentage to bring down at restaurants.

Declarations of margarines on nutrition is now a subdivision into saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fat made. A good quality vegetable margarine contains less than 2 g trans fat per 100 g of fat. On other suspicious products, such as pretzels, cakes and pastries is the levels of trans fat trans fat not yet listed and the percentage is still relatively high, considerably higher than is the case nowadays in margarines.

Food without trans fat


Iowa State University has the breeder of new soybean varieties with a very low content of alpha-linolenic acid. This recently put on the market 1% Lin oil can be used without hydrogenation and is suitable for the making of end-products with favorable shelf life.

Specialized companies for propagation have set up a large-scale production of the new soybean varieties. Soybean Producers received in the US besides the premium for the supply of non GMO soy protein an extra premium for separately producing and accumulating soybean oil containing 1% linolenic acid. Conventional soybean oil contains 6 to 7 percent linolenic acid and the products are thus prepared - without hydrogenation - fast rans by the oxidation of the triple unsaturated linolenic acid.

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