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Friday, November 28, 2014

Taurine Definition

What is taurine?

Taurine is an organic acid having a sulfonic acid group and contains an amino group. Aminosulfonic acid as it can not form peptides. Taurine is not an amino acid but a degradation product of the amino acids cysteine and methionine.

History of taurine

Taurine was in 1827 by Leopold Gmelin and Friedrich Tiedemann from ox bile isolated and named Gallen-asparagine. It is located in the bile as taurocholic ago, a Cholsäureamid from which it can be released by acid hydrolysis. The term "taurine" comes from the Latin for bull bile, Fel tauri, or from the Greek word tauros for "bull" and is first mentioned in 1838 in the literature.

Features

Chemical and physical
Taurine is a colorless crystalline substance decomposes above 300 ° C and melts at 328 ° C. It is soluble in water up to about 100 g / l. The good water solubility and high melting point agree - similar amino acids - the formation of the zwitterion (H3N + -C2H4-SO3).

Taurine is produced industrially by addition of sulfite to aziridine.

Biological
The adult human body can produce taurine from the amino acid cysteine itself. This cysteine is oxidized by oxygen and NAD + -consumption in several intermediate steps to taurine. A second formation mechanism resulting in the degradation of coenzyme A by decarboxylation of cysteamine. A supply of food is not necessary in adults.

Wffects of taurine

One of the few clearly defined functions in the metabolism of taurine include the formation of Gallensäurenkonjugaten, the influence on the signal transmission and potential role in the development of the central nervous system and the heart function. Taurine stimulates the influx and membrane binding of calcium. In addition, it assists the movement of sodium and potassium through the cell membrane. The resulting supported stabilization of the membrane potential has an increase in the contraction and antiarrhythmic effect on the heart. Taurine is a powerful antioxidant and can protect tissues from oxidative damage. A low intramuscular taurine is characteristic of chronic renal failure. Taurine deficiency in the human body leads to an impaired immune system.

Moreover, in animal experiments an anti-inflammatory effect of taurine was found. A Taurinverarmung the tissue pools, especially of the lung tissue, leads to inflammation. Researchers at the School of Pharmacy, University of London found that taurine may reduce alcohol-induced liver damage. In a study of endurance athletes no performance enhancing effect could be detected. Sometimes a placebo effect is assumed.

In animal studies in rats taurine lowered blood pressure and led by co-administration of salt to a life-threatening hypernatremia. In addition, it accelerated by influencing the metabolism of insulin levels; which could explain the enhancing effect of taurine in energy drinks, where it is next to caffeine and sugar one of the main ingredients. A can (250 ml) of the energy drinks Red Bull contains eg. 1000 mg (= 1 g) taurine. However, the insulin-influencing property of taurine on metabolism could not be confirmed in humans. There is evidence to suggest that taurine should be supplied in renal failure and pneumonia. Other studies seem again to show that taurine should be avoided in renal failure. Also, in certain metabolic states in CF may be useful to the exogenous supply of taurine.

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