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Saturday, November 29, 2014

Augmentative and Alternative Communication ( AAC )

What is AAC?


Augmentative and Alternative Communication (abbreviated UK) is the German name for the international art Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). Literally translated the English technical term "complementary and replaced communication", so that all forms of communication are meant to complement the lack of spoken language (augmentation) or replace (alternative).

AAC is thus the generic term for all educational or therapeutic measures for expanding the communicative potential of people who do not or hardly spoken language. Examples include the introduction of a picture or symbol cards or a communication board for communication, the supply of a voice output device or the addition of spoken language by the sign of keywords. In addition, the term refers to the process of communication with agents AAC (eg in the phrase AAC people).

The term is not to be confused with the supported communication. Here is a physical and emotional support is given, which is to make it people with impaired voluntary motor possible to point to a communication aid or to use a writing aid or a computer. The supported communication is controversial because critics doubt that the supported written messages are authentic, ie submitted by the assisted person.

Objectives and basic principles


In the AAC is the success of the communication process in the foreground. People with insufficient or no spoken language should as soon as possible successful communication experience is provided so that their communicative development is not affected by constant failures. As an addition and replacement of spoken language body's communication services are also available as electronic or non-electronic communication aids. However, it comes with AAC not only to the provision of assistive devices, but the concept provides a comprehensive special education and therapeutic monitoring of communicative development of people with inadequate spoken language skills. Equally important is the attitude of the communication partners and their skills in interviewing and other external conditions. e.g. institutional Characteristics.

AAC has the contact made explicitly to establish itself the target direction in some form a common understanding system, jointly understood characters. These characters can somatic expressions, sounds, words, objects, images and symbols, touch, movement, gestures, scents, sounds, tones, among others be - is crucial that these characters gain a common meaning for the communication partners involved.

Time of the intervention


Again and again, there have been concerns that an earlier could lead to use of AAC mean that the development and evolution of phonetic skills is impeded. So said the oralistische approach that alternatives to the spoken language are only appropriate when years of effort to the development of spoken language skills were unsuccessful. AAC was therefore considered only as a last resort, which ranked subordinate to traditional speech therapy measures.

Meanwhile, however, the communicative approach has prevailed in both the scientific discussion as well as practical work. Accordingly, it is the most important goal to achieve an undisturbed as possible communicative development in a human without effective speech. And communicative development is based on successful communication is irrelevant whether to spoken language, body-own options or communication aids are used. It is therefore important to let people without adequate oral language experience joyful and effective communication as soon as possible, knowing that AAC may well be a way to promote the spoken language skills and to become so gradually superfluous. At the same time there will always be people for whom Supported communication is the most important, perhaps the only effective means of communication.

Development of the UK in Germany


The first promising efforts in practice had existed since the early 1970s (z. B. Belvedere School in Cologne, Martin School in Ladenburg, as well as by Etta Wilken 1974 by the Leibniz University of Hannover). Since 1981, various courses contributed to the symbolic language BLISS to developing the UK. Today Bliss is rarely used, since modern computer programs offer icon collections. Creating communication boards much easier (eg the Boardmaker program) In addition, now are a variety of portable voice computers available that can be operated via icons, icons or characters.

In 1990, the German-speaking section of the International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC) was founded. First scientific studies were conducted in Germany by the Dissertations and Habilitation Wachsmuth (1986), Gangkofer (1993), Adam (1993), Brown (1994) performed. The number of scientific (including Roth Mayr 2001; Renner 2004; position 2006; Seiler boiler Home 2008; Boenisch 2009) and the practice-oriented publications on UK continues to rise. Since 1996, first published in 1990 as a club magazine of ISAAC Germany magazine AAC over the Loeper of publishing a wide readership is also available. Also at the Universities of AAC is increasingly accepted as a necessary part of the training of prospective teachers conveyor. Thus, there is at the Catholic University of Applied Sciences in Freiburg Department of AAC.

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